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The present abstraction was conducted in accordance with the Helsinki Declaration. It was accustomed by the EPFL Ethics Committee (Agreement 043-2019) and conducted with the compassionate and accounting accord of anniversary child’s parents and the articulate accord of anniversary child. A ’consent to publish’ was acquired from anniversary child’s parent/guardian (Legally authorised adumbrative of anniversary participant).



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A complete of 390 about developing (TD) accouchement were recruited from bristles primary schools in Haute-Savoie, France. Accouchement alignment in age from bristles to twelve years of age were recruited from 30 classes. None of these accouchement presented accepted acquirements disabilities or neuro-motor disorders.



A complete of 58 accouchement presenting astringent autography difficulties (dysgraphia) were additionally recruited from analysis centers. Patients of seven grapho-therapists (from the Graphydis Association) amid in France were additionally complex in this study. All of these accouchement were diagnosed dysgraphic (severe autography difficulties) according to their BHK scores, ahead conducted on cardboard by therapists.

It is important to agenda that, clashing to the accouchement recruited from the analysis centers, none of the accouchement recruited in the schools were adjourned for dysgraphia with the BHK test, which agency that some of these accouchement ability present astringent autography difficulties, as well.



The 448 accouchement (school accouchement and accouchement with dysgraphia) complex in this abstraction were asked to address the aboriginal bristles sentences acclimated in the BHK analysis on an iPad-based appliance accurately advised for this purpose (Dynamico appliance v1.0). This appliance acclimated the Apple pencil.

The abstracts were calm application Dynamico software (CHILI class EPFL), which recorded the x and y coordinates as able-bodied as the pressure, azimuth and ambit bend of the pen at a abundance of 60 Hz. In addition, the gender, age and laterality of the biographer were saved.

Based on antecedent work21, we extracted, for anniversary adolescent complex in this study, a set of appearance anecdotic autography based on altered aspects and sorted into four capital categories (static, kinematic, burden and tilt). These appearance were begin to auspiciously adumbrate astringent autography difficulties in the abstraction appear by Asselborn et al.21. All these appearance are declared in the abutting section.

Every affection acclimated in this abstraction is declared below:

(1) The Autography Moment. To compute this feature, we extracted bins of 300 credibility (from the aforementioned band of text) and computed their barycenters. The ambit in the y administration amid after barycenters was computed and averaged for all of the points, absorption the amount of bluntness of the band of text.

(2) The Autography Size. To compute this feature, we extracted bins of 300 credibility (from the aforementioned band of text) and computed the complete apparent active by the box bonds the trace.

(3) The Amplitude Amid Strokes. This affection refers to the ambit amid strokes.

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(4) The Autography Density. A filigree with 20-pixel beef accoutrement the complete ambit of the autography trace is created, as can be apparent in Fig. 6. The cardinal of credibility recorded by the iPad in anniversary cell, if present, is again stored in an array. The beggarly of this arrangement is represented by this feature. There is a complete alternation amid autography body and autography quality, as autography becomes denser with age.

Illustration of the Autography density. The amplitude is breach into 20-pixel-wide aboveboard cells. Application the cardinal of credibility per cell, we can again compute a density.

(5) The Boilerplate Stoke Direction. For two after credibility aural a stroke, the administration of movement is affected as the arctan of the arrangement dy/dx. We can access the boilerplate achievement administration by award the boilerplate of these two directions.

(6) The Bend Smoothness. To compute this feature, we aboriginal charge to account the complete bend amid anniversary set of three after credibility in an autography sample. This affection is again access by averaging all the angles affected and measures the accuracy of the autography (a aerial amount for this affection relates to brusque angles).

(7) The Breadth of the Text’s Arched Hull. To compute this feature, we aboriginal charge to compute the arched bark of the text, which is computed application Graham’s algorithm31. We can again compute the breadth of the arched bark surrounding the text.

(8), (9), (10), (11) (12) The Bandwidth of the Ability Ashen of Tremor Frequencies, the Boilerplate of the Ability Ashen of Tremor Frequencies, the Anarchy of Beggarly of Tremor Frequencies, the Alternation of Beggarly of Tremor Frequencies and the Ambit of Beggarly of Tremor Frequencies. These appearance call all-a-quiver handwriting. For every child, the afterward action was followed: the arresting was aboriginal disconnected into bins of 600 credibility (as accent in Fig. 7). For anniversary bin, we extracted the aberancy from the autography aisle application two types of vectors: the aboriginal one was a agent apery the all-around autography administration (computed with 10 points, as can be apparent in blooming in Fig. 7), while the added was a bounded agent computed with two after credibility (in dejected in Fig. 7). We again computed the cantankerous artefact of these two vectors to account how erect the bounded vectors were with the all-around vector. The greater this cantankerous artefact is, the college the aberancy from the autography path. We accepted that all-a-quiver autography would aftereffect in bounded vectors that were ailing accumbent with the all-around vectors. Making it accessible to ascertain all-a-quiver autography with this method.

The accomplished action acclimated to abstract the abundance spectrum of our signal. (a) We aboriginal disconnected the BHK argument into bins of 600 points. (b) For anniversary packet, the arresting was extracted. (c) We computed the Fourier transform of the signal. (d) We took the boilerplate of all signals and performed a normalization. (e) In these sample signals extracted from the data, the red dots are the point coordinates recorded by the accessory during handwriting, the vectors in dejected are “local” vectors bond two after credibility and the agent in blooming is the “global” agent (average of the nine dejected vectors) apery the all-around administration of the handwriting. The cantankerous artefact of these two vectors gives us an adumbration of the smoothness/shakiness of the handwriting. The appropriate ancillary of the amount comes from a biographer with smoother/less all-a-quiver autography than the biographer bearing the one on the left, and the cantankerous artefact operation will ascertain this difference. This angel has been acclimatized from21.

For anniversary of these 600 points, we adored the barometer of the cantankerous artefact and computed the Fourier transform on this vector. Again we averaged all the Fourier transforms extracted from all the altered 600-point bins (see Fig. 7). A aerial abundance or a advanced bandwidth in the ashen administration would be an adumbration of all-a-quiver handwriting.

For instance, we computed the ambit of frequencies accoutrement 90% of the ashen density. The abate this amount is (corresponding to a added amassed distribution), the added accomplished the biographer is. This affection is alleged the (8) Bandwidth of the Ability Ashen of Tremor Frequencies. We additionally extracted the boilerplate of the ability ashen density. A ample amount for this affection indicates the attendance of aerial frequencies. This affection is alleged the (9) Boilerplate of the Ability Ashen of Tremor Frequencies.

The aftermost affection authentic in this ambience is the anarchy amid the ashen administration of the biographer and the averaged ashen administration of all the writers in our database. The college this anarchy is, the added altered the autography of this accurate biographer is. This affection is alleged (10) Anarchy of Beggarly of Tremor Frequencies. We additionally computed the alternation amid the two signals, alleged the (11) Alternation of Beggarly of Tremor Frequencies, as able-bodied as the ambit amid them, alleged the (12) Ambit of Beggarly of Tremor Frequencies.

(13), (14) & (15) The Beggarly Velocity, Best Acceleration and Accepted Aberration of Velocity. These appearance quantify autography speed, area the acceleration is the ambit catholic by the pen disconnected by the time taken to address out the passage. Research shows that accouchement presenting autography difficulties accept lower beggarly velocities as able-bodied as college best velocities. Furthermore, the beggarly acceleration increases with age.

(16) The Increase in Velocity. Application the autography acceleration over time, we performed a beeline corruption to compute the change of this autography speed.

(17) The Nb of Peaks of Acceleration Change Per Second. Motivated by insights from clinicians, we activated a Gaussian clarify to the acceleration arresting over time (using the scipy library, adjustment accepted gaussian with M = 3, p = 0.5, sigma = 2) and computed the cardinal of bounded best and minimum that were extracted. We accepted that the cardinal of changes would abound with the complete continuance of the analysis and, therefore, we adapt this cardinal with time.

(18), (19), (20), (21) & (22) The Bandwidth of the Ability Ashen of Acceleration Frequencies, the Boilerplate of the Ability Ashen of Acceleration Frequencies, the Anarchy of Beggarly of Acceleration Frequencies, the Alternation of Beggarly of Acceleration Frequencies and the Ambit of Beggarly of Acceleration Frequencies. Autography can be interpreted as a two-dimensional time series. As in the (19) Boilerplate of the Ability Ashen of Tremor Frequencies, a Fourier transform can be affected with the autography velocity, boilerplate and constant bandwidth of the ashen distribution. We can beam actual accelerated changes in acceleration in the autography of accouchement with dysgraphia (some jerks constant from a low akin of autography automation). These aberrant changes in acceleration are translated into aerial frequencies in the Fourier transform, constant in a about-face in the boilerplate appear college frequencies. Accouchement with a low akin of automation change additionally use capricious speeds in their writing. Hence, a biographer presenting a aerial bandwidth will not be fluent, as they are beneath constant in their movements. The (20) Anarchy of Beggarly of Acceleration Frequencies is the anarchy amid the ashen administration of the biographer and the boilerplate ashen administration of all the writers in our database. The college this anarchy is, the added all-embracing the autography of this accurate biographer is. We additionally computed the (21) Alternation of Beggarly of Acceleration Frequencies, which is the alternation amid the ashen administration of the biographer and the boilerplate ashen administration of all the writers in our database, as able-bodied as the (22) Ambit of Beggarly of Acceleration Frequencies.

(23) The In-Air-Time Arrangement represents the admeasurement of time the biographer spends after affecting the apparent of the tablet. This affection has been apparent to be absolutely activated with autography problems21,23,29.

(24), (25) & (26) The Beggarly Pressure, Best Burden and Accepted Aberration of Pressure. These aboriginal appearance apropos burden are artlessly the mean, maximum, and accepted aberration of the pressure.

(27), (28) & (29) The Beggarly Acceleration of Burden Change, Max Acceleration of Burden Change and Accepted Aberration of Acceleration of Burden Change are extracted by alive with averaged bins of 10 recorded credibility of burden and adding the time spent by the aberration amid two averaged bins of points. These appearance are again computed by award the mean, best and accepted aberration of all measurements.

(30) The Increase of Acceleration of Burden Change. Application the changes in the Acceleration of Burden change over time, we performed a beeline corruption to clue its evolution.

(31) The Nb of Peaks of Burden Change Per Added computes the cardinal of burden inversions per second.

(32), (33), (34), (35) & (36) The Bandwidth of the Ability Ashen of Acceleration of Burden Change Frequencies, the Boilerplate of the Ability Ashen of Acceleration of Burden Change Frequencies, the Anarchy of Beggarly of Acceleration of Burden Change Frequencies, the Alternation of Beggarly of Acceleration of Burden Change Frequencies and the Ambit of Beggarly of Acceleration of Burden Change Frequencies. The acceleration of burden change can be apparent as a time series, and frequencies can be extracted application a Fourier transform. The aforementioned action as that declared in Fig. 7 is followed to abstract these bristles features.

The iPad arrangement measures the pen bend with two altered angles referred to as the Tilt-Azimuth bend and the Tilt-Altitude bend (see Fig. 8 for added information). Both angles are amid 0 to 180 degrees.

The two angles (Tilt-Azimuth and Tilt-Altitude) recorded for the pen.

(38), (39) & (40) The Beggarly Tilt-Azimuth, Best Tilt-Azimuth and Accepted Aberration of Tilt-Azimuth. These aboriginal appearance apropos the Tilt-Azimuth are artlessly its mean, best and accepted deviation.

(41), (42) & (43) The Beggarly Tilt-Altitude, Best Tilt-Altitude and Accepted Aberration of Tilt-Altitude. These aboriginal appearance apropos the Tilt-Altitude are artlessly its mean, best and accepted deviation.

(44), (45) & (46) The Beggarly Acceleration of Tilt-Azimuth Change, Max Acceleration of Tilt-Azimuth Change and Accepted Aberration of Acceleration of Tilt-Azimuth Change are extracted by alive with averaged bins of 10 recorded Tilt-Azimuth credibility and adding the time spent by the aberration amid two averaged bins of points. These appearance are again computed by award the mean, best and accepted aberration of all measurements.

(47), (48) & (49) The Beggarly Acceleration of Tilt-Altitude Change, Max Acceleration of Tilt-Altitude Change and Accepted aberration of Acceleration of Tilt-Altitude Change are extracted by alive with averaged bins of 10 recorded credibility of Tilt-Altitude and adding the time spent by the aberration amid two averaged bins of points. These appearance are again computed by award the mean, best and accepted aberration of all measurements.

(50), (51) The Increase of Acceleration of Tilt-Azimuth Change, Increase of Acceleration of Tilt-Altitude Change. Application the changes in the Acceleration of Tilt-Azimuth (Tilt-Altitude) over time, we performed a beeline corruption to clue its evolution.

(52), (53) The Nb of Peaks of Tilt-Azimuth Change Per Added and Nb of Peaks of Tilt-Altitude Change Per Second. This affection computes the cardinal of Tilt-Azimuth (Tilt-Altitude) inversions per second.

(54), (55), (56), (57) & (58) The Bandwidth of the Ability Ashen of Acceleration of Tilt-Azimuth Change Frequencies, the Boilerplate of the Ability Ashen of Acceleration of Tilt-Azimuth Change Frequencies, the Anarchy of Beggarly of Acceleration of Tilt-Azimuth Change Frequencies, the Alternation of Beggarly of Acceleration of Tilt-Azimuth Change Frequencies and the Ambit of Beggarly of Acceleration of Tilt-Azimuth Change Frequencies. The acceleration of Tilt-Azimuth change can be apparent as a time series, and frequencies can be extracted application a Fourier transform. The aforementioned action as that declared in Fig. 7 is followed to abstract these bristles features.

(59), (60), (61), (62) & (63) The Bandwidth of the Ability Ashen of Acceleration of Tilt-Altitude Change Frequencies, the Boilerplate of the Ability Ashen of Acceleration of Tilt-Altitude Change Frequencies, the Anarchy of Beggarly of Acceleration of Tilt-Altitude Change Frequencies, the Alternation of Beggarly of Acceleration of Tilt-Altitude Change Frequencies and the Ambit of Beggarly of Acceleration of Tilt-Altitude Change Frequencies. The acceleration of Tilt-Altitude change can be apparent as a time series, and frequencies can be extracted application a Fourier transform. The aforementioned action as that declared in Fig. 7 is followed to abstract these bristles features.

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