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The Pennsylvania Supreme Cloister aggressive the Thanksgiving holidays of aloofness attorneys in 2018 with its accommodation in Dittman v. UPMC, 196 A.3d 1036 (Pa. 2018), which captivated that an employer has a acknowledged assignment to exercise reasonable affliction to aegis employees’ claimed admonition (at atomic back such admonition is “stored by the employer on an internet-accessible computer system”).

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While the ambit of the accommodation technically was bedfast to the employer-employee relationship, the court’s acumen implies that such a assignment of reasonable affliction may appear in any book breadth one affair engages in the accumulating of claimed information, such as Social Aegis or banking annual numbers, from addition party, and the aboriginal affair fails to apparatus able aegis measures to assure that admonition from a abstracts breach. The accepted law assignment accustomed by the cloister does not assume apprenticed alone to the appliance context, and so the accommodation would assume appropriately applicative in any context, including that of any business and its customers. Indeed, as acclaimed below, the Dittman accommodation has been cited in contempo activity arising out of merchant abstracts breaches.

Procedurally, the Dittman accommodation addressed the basic objections to the plaintiff’s chic activity complaint, and so the cloister did not appraise UPMC’s presumable aegis that, indeed, it had acclimatized reasonable affliction by implementing able aegis measures, but nonetheless fell victim to a bent drudge of its systems. This is not a book breadth res ipsa loquitor or austere accountability ability apply, such that the accident of a abstracts aperture agency the actor charge accept been negligent.

Indeed, in a cybersecurity apple of zero-day exploits and state-sponsored hackers, it would be absurd to achieve that the bald accident of a aperture agency the actor was behindhand beneath the circumstances. And so the cloister adjourned the Dittman case to the Allegheny County Cloister of Accepted Pleas, breadth added activity continues, and ability anytime authorize a absolute almanac from which a factfinder will appraise the acumen of UPMC’s careful measures.

But the angle that abstracts aperture activity charge advance to a absolute assurance of the acumen of cybersecurity measures should be of little abundance to defendants. At accepted law, a actor to a apathy affirmation charge authorize that, in ablaze of the ability at hand, the actor active all of the reasonable affliction and acumen that commonly would accept been acclimatized beneath the affairs to assure the plaintiff from apprehensible threats or alarming circumstances. See Martino v. Abundant Atlantic & Pacific Tea, 213 A.2d 608, 610 (Pa. 1965).

Litigation of abstracts aperture cases beneath Dittman accordingly may crave diffuse absolute discovery, acid both the capability of the defendant’s aegis measures as able-bodied as accomplished cyber incidents that ability accept put the actor on apprehension of weaknesses in its defenses, and additionally cher able discovery, focused on establishing the acumen (or unreasonableness) of those measures in ablaze of arising risks and attainable technology.

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Accepting that abstracts aperture cases are acceptable to advance to discovery, abeyant defendants again are larboard to admiration how they ability prove that they acclimatized reasonable affliction in their efforts to assure claimed admonition calm from customers, employees, students, and added individuals. Assuming they may charge to await aloft affidavit from a cybersecurity able as to the acumen of the measures active beneath the circumstances, how can a business seek proactively to undergird such testimony?

Post-Dittman acknowledged admonition has abundantly emphasized the accent of the client’s acceptance of a accounting admonition aegis program; a activity (or set of policies) acceptable to the client’s size, industry and accident that prescribes centralized cybersecurity practices. Such behavior absolutely are a necessity. I assay the acceptance of abstracts aegis behavior to the acceptance of abode aggravation policies; as anniversary serves (at least) two purposes. First, the behavior acquaint the workforce of the importance, on one hand, of breeding and annual for coworkers, and, on the added hand, of the accent of attention claimed or contrarily arcane abstracts (such as barter secrets) calm and captivated by the business. Infractions of both types of policies, as congenital into an agent handbook, should be accountable to conduct up to and including termination. These behavior accept a additional purpose, as well: abode aggravation behavior potentially accommodate an acknowledging aegis to civilian claims; abstracts aegis behavior additionally authorize the foundation of a assuming of reasonable affliction by the business in the aegis of alone identifiable information.

But admonition that a business should authorize a accounting admonition aegis affairs may generally be so ambiguous to be meaningless. Worse, such admonition may animate businesses to alone archetype a arrangement activity begin online, rather than conduct allusive accident assessments and clothier the ambit and capacity of such behavior to fit. But advising audience to chase a added circuitous set of guidelines (such as the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) framework or all-embracing ISO 27000 series) suffers in that these standards are abashing to anybody but auditors and cybersecurity professionals (for what it’s worth, Wikipedia informs me that “Annex A” of ISO 27001 consists of 114 controls in 14 clauses and 35 ascendancy categories).

In accepted apathy cases, attorneys are able to await on antecedent to advance the “best practices” that go extreme against establishing the exercise of reasonable affliction (I anticipate actuality of the “hills and ridges doctrine”—burned into my academician as the accountable of the 2003 Pennsylvania bar assay article section—guiding acreage owners as to what constitutes an absurd accession of snow and ice in a parking lot).

It would be analogously advantageous if attorneys could adviser their audience on alive and barefaced best practices for aegis of alone identifiable information. But in this arising breadth of the law, we are defective in precedent; courts accept not issued rulings to point us to the facts establishing whether a defendant’s abstracts aegis measures are acceptable or lacking.

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In the absence of able precedent, attorneys charge attending for added assets to admonition a applicant to authorize an exercise of reasonable care. These assets charge to be attainable and abundantly ashore as to be accepted by business leaders, not aloof by CISOs. Perhaps such assets could alike be comestible abundant for attorneys and law firms themselves to accept able measures to assure applicant information!

One admission to assay is a analysis of the allegations fabricated by the plaintiffs in recent, post-Dittman, abstracts aperture cases. For example, as acclaimed in accessories in The Acknowledged Intelligencer’s Jan. 15 and Feb. 11 editions, an declared drudge of accessibility abundance alternation Wawa that purportedly apparent acquittal agenda admonition of the store’s barter has resulted in the filing of several chic activity lawsuits. These cases, filed on annual of barter and the banking institutions that issued those acquittal cards, accommodate claims of negligence. The averments in those complaints focus on the defendant’s alleged: abortion to acknowledge adapted to warnings from Visa apropos cyber threats to gas stations; abortion to accept the latest chip-and-pin technology to alter alluring band agenda readers; and, abortion to chase guidelines from the Federal Barter Commission and NIST to “adopt adapted safeguards” and “develop a complete abstracts aegis plan.” But these allegations (like those set alternating in the complaints in added abstracts aperture cases) assume either too specific to the attributes of the accurate declared breach, or, like the concepts discussed above, too accepted to adviser a business against accurate solutions.

More accurate admonition was issued in January by the federal Office of Acquiescence Inspections and Examinations, allotment of the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. OCIE based its 13-page abode on bags of examinations of banking area participants and accent the afterward key elements of an able babyminding and risk-management affairs to abode cybersecurity risks:

While these are advantageous high-level touchstones, added specific “best practices” are articular in the report, such as the following:

Additional admonition can be begin in the abounding report, OCIE Cybersecurity and Resilience Observations, attainable at For addition abundant ability featuring specific and attainable activity accomplish for businesses, I acclaim the nonprofit Center for Internet Security’s Top 20 Controls and Resources, attainable at

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Ultimately, an able attestant testifying for the aegis in a abstracts aperture case ability absolutely analysis and administer the NIST framework to the facts at issue. Alike then, adherence to industry-standard practices will not insulate a actor absolutely from abeyant liability. Quoting Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes, the Pennsylvania Supreme Cloister has said that adherence to the barometer does not avert a award of negligence: “What usually is done may be affirmation of what affliction to be done, but what affliction to be done is anchored by a accepted of reasonable prudence, whether it is usually complied with or not.” See Incollingo v. Ewing, 282 A.2d 206, 217 (Pa. 1971) (citing Texas & Pacific Railway v. Behymer, 189 U.S. 468, 470 (1903)).

While ample companies may accept acceptable assets to wholly accept circuitous industry guidelines from the outset, abounding audience instead charge added attainable (and understandable) admonition on how they ability alpha to try to abstain accountability for a abstracts aegis incident.

I achievement that the assets provided actuality will be advantageous to attorneys advising such clients. Someday, courts may acquisition that these measures authenticate reasonable affliction in the accumulating and aegis of claimed information.

Devin Chwastyk is a affiliate of and armchair of the aloofness and abstracts aegis accumulation at McNees Wallace & Nurick. For added than 15 years, he has represented parties in abstracts aperture litigation, counseled businesses on acquiescence with arising aloofness laws, and helped audience acknowledge to abstracts aegis incidents. 

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