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This commodity was produced in accord with the Food & Environment Reporting Network, an independent, non-profit annual organization.

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Lawrence Brorman eases his auto through bashed farmland in Deaf Smith County, an impossibly collapsed amplitude of the Texas Panhandle breadth beasts outnumber bodies 40 to 1. The 67-year-old agriculturalist and agriculturist brings the agent to a stop at the field’s southern edge. Aloof beyond the fence line, Brorman eyes a blend of beasts continuing bouncer aloft a bank of clay and compacted manure. They associate aback at him, chewing cud, mooing, and, of course, pooping.

Though Brorman grazes 80 or so beasts on his acreage in Hereford, Deaf Smith’s canton seat, the animals he’s currently staring bottomward aren’t his. They’re captivated by Southwest Feedyard, one of the oldest beasts feedlots in the county. This abode holds 45,000 arch of beasts in bare-dirt pens for months at a time, fattening the animals on comatose blah afore sending them to slaughter. It’s allotment of a all-inclusive afterlife of agronomics operations that dot the western Panhandle, which accounts for one-fifth of the absolute U.S. beef supply. If you’ve anytime eaten a hamburger, there’s a acceptable adventitious the meat came from here.

Brorman rolls bottomward the driver’s ancillary window, and a rank odor wafts in from the Southwest feedlot. While acceptable fences accomplish acceptable neighbors, they do annihilation to stop the wind from across-the-board up tiny bits of broiled admixture from the feedlot apparent and overextension them beyond Brorman’s farm. Some summer days, abnormally during droughts, the particles—which scientists alarm “fecal dust”—form abutting plumes that blemish out the sun. Aback the wind is high, a bank of dust churns through the boondocks of 15,000, blanket homes and businesses and attached afterimage on U.S. Highway 60 so acutely that motorists allegation about-face on their headlights able-bodied afore sunset.

“You go alfresco and it’ll aloof bake your adenoids and your eyes,” Brorman says. The dust brings abhorrent odors so common that they can access the Brormans’ farmhouse alike aback the doors and windows are closed. Lawrence and his wife, Jaime, use a added absolute appellation for the begrimed dust: “shust,” a blend of “shit” and “dust.” (Other association who alive actuality are fractional to “shog,” a mashup of the aforementioned aboriginal chat and “fog.”)

Whatever it’s called, the dust and odor are a connected botheration for the Brormans, who accept submitted bookish complaints to the Texas Commission on Ecology Affection (TCEQ), a accompaniment authoritative agency. From 2008 to 2017, at atomic 100 complaints about begrimed dust and odor from feedlots accept been registered with the agency, according to abstracts acquired through an accessible annal request. The comments acknowledge a botheration potentially far graver than the smell.

“Each evening, about dark, a huge billow of feedyard dust blankets the absolute community. The billow is so blubbery at times it is difficult to breathe,” a complaint from Oldham Canton reads. Another, from Hartley County, reported: “In the morning the air is abounding of a awful aroma and a amber brume of dust southwest of town. Aback the wind picks up, it assault beyond boondocks and looks like smoke from a fire. Aback the air is still, the brume looms over town. It is causing above problems with my breath and my accouchement ahem and apprehend all the time.”

The Observer, in accord with the Food & Environment Reporting Arrangement and the Midwest Center for Investigative Reporting, spent four months investigating how begrimed dust affects Texans and how TCEQ does little to stop it. Admitting the bureau about sends board to the armpit of a complaint, it appears the augment yards are mostly accustomed to accumulate blanket their neighbors. The bureau performs alone apathetic investigations of the complaints: From 2014 to November 2019, TCEQ took no administration activity adjoin abounding beef feedlots in the Panhandle. The bureau levied no fines and issued no warnings, its own annal show.

The bloom risks associated with breath ammonia and chapped matter—both of which are byproducts of cow manure—are cogent and well-documented. Ammonia is a key contributor to bounded brume and can annual coughing and adversity breathing; chapped bulk is one of six above pollutants adapted by the Ecology Protection Agency—the tiny bits can access abysmal into the lungs and alike the bloodstream. Exposure to chapped bulk can annual asthma, an aberrant heartbeat, adversity breathing, and abortive afterlife in bodies with affection or lung disease. Hydrogen sulfide, which can blemish a person’s respiratory and abashed systems, can additionally anatomy as admixture decomposes. A abounding anatomy of assay indicates that active in abutting adjacency to concentrated beastly agronomics operations (CAFOs), including feedlots, can annual or aggravate bloom problems.

“These are all well-known, well-understood pollutants,” says Dr. Anne Epstein, a physician who ahead chaired the Lubbock Board of Health. “The bloom furnishings amalgamate to accord you beneath activity expectancy, and that’s appealing dramatic.”

Now, the Brormans apprehend their acreage to get a accomplished lot dustier—a new beasts feedlot is slated to be congenital appropriate beyond the alley from their home. TCEQ, which authorizes CAFO permits, is accepted to accept affairs for the 50,000-head facility.

Jaime is already frequently sick. Aback the dust is high, she has asthma attacks. Jaime uses an inhaler and is assigned antibiotics for best of the year due to alternate respiratory infections. Depending on the dust levels, her bloom is “up and down. I don’t go alfresco much,” she says. Aback she brought up the affair with her doctor, his admonition was to “get out of Hereford,” she recalls. Then, the doctor said, “Well, I assumption your bedmate won’t move the farm, huh?”

In the Panhandle, bodies active in feedlot hot spots acquaintance some of the accomplished levels of asthma in the state, an assay of American Lung Association abstracts shows. Deaf Smith Canton has the 11th-highest bulk of pediatric asthma amid Texas’ 254 counties. Gaines, Yoakum, Ochiltree, Dallam, and Moore counties, all forth the West Texas and Panhandle beasts feedlot corridor, ranked alike higher.

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A 2009 abstraction appear by Oxford University Press begin that acceleration livestock assembly is activated with a 7.4 percent access in baby bloodshed due to respiratory disease. Addition study, appear in 2006, begin that accouchement active abreast CAFOs were at greater accident for asthma. “CAFOs are an accomplished archetype of how ecology problems can anon appulse beastly and association well-being,” the National Association of Bounded Boards of Bloom wrote in 2010.

Despite this, the Texas Administration of Accompaniment Bloom Services does no ecology or testing to actuate whether active abreast feedlots or added CAFOs in the Panhandle compromises beastly health. TCEQ operates a arrangement of air affection monitors about the state, but the bureau hasn’t placed one in Hereford or added baby towns breadth begrimed dust abuse is best pronounced.

That afternoon on his farm, Lawrence gets aback in his barter and drives west to addition of his fields, breadth the abandoned Panhandle wind has bargain a quarter-mile-long irrigation sprinkler to a abundance of askance metal. The begrimed dust rises in the air as he ponders how to deliver the $50,000 allotment of equipment. Lawrence says he hates to be alfresco aback the dust starts blowing, but there’s a lot of assignment to be done. “If you’ve got to assignment on your sprinklers or something, you’ve aloof got to assignment in it,” he says. “You get on a auto and ride bottomward the alley and you’re benumbed appropriate through it. Again it’s on everything.”

Tonight, aback he’s done with chores, he’ll bankrupt in the garage, accurate not to abrasion the manure-laced clothes in the house. Aback he showers, “the aboriginal affair you aroma is crap. Whenever that baptize hits your bark and your beard and you’ve got that admixture all over you, it aloof smells like admixture in there for a second,” he says.

Jaime and Lawrence say the dust and odor from adjoining feedlots accept added apprenticed them to booty apartment central their farmhouse, which now serves as abundant as a alembic as it does a home. Half-jokingly, they’ve started apropos to themselves as “the birthmark people.”

They accept no brainy argument to adopting beasts in feedlots. The Brormans accession livestock themselves, and they adore bistro beef. “We’re aloof adjoin augment yards that can’t booty affliction of their dust or their smell,” Jaime says. “It should stop at their fence line.”

The beasts agronomics industry, at atomic in its accepted form, is a almost new apparatus in Texas agriculture. Historically, beasts spent little time in such abutting confinement, alone actuality bound anon afterwards addition to markets in Fort Annual and elsewhere. About 1900, a Brownwood agriculturist apparent that beasts kept in pens adjoining to farmland would eat cottonseed that had already been apprenticed for its oil—a decay artefact affection farmers had ahead dumped in adjoining ravines. It was added or beneath a cottage industry until the end of Apple War II, aback the feedlot chic started across-the-board the state, says David Brauer, a U.S. Administration of Agronomics scientist who conducts assay at an beginning feedlot abreast Amarillo. In 1955, a Big Spring agriculturist fabricated a accord with Dallas oil magnate Clint Murchison Sr. to body a 30,000-head augment yard, creating what was again the bigger West Texas agronomics operation and ushering in a new era of American agriculture.

Feedlots absolute the animals’ movement while maximizing their comestible intake. Beasts put on weight bound and calmly in such environments; it takes a bald six months for beasts to airship from 500 to 1,300 pounds aback all they do is sit, eat, and actualize manure. Brauer says feedlots aren’t all-important to aftermath beef—free-range beasts can additionally backpack on weight artlessly by agriculture grass or added forages such as winter wheat. But in the Panhandle, bare condensate bureau grass grows abundant added boring than in added genitalia of the state. Here, it can booty 2,000 acreage aloof to abrade 200 arch of cattle.

During the 1960s and ’70s, big feedlot operators began brief arctic to the Panhandle because of acceptable acclimate and abounding groundwater, best of which comes from the Ogallala Aquifer, which spans eight states and is one of Arctic America’s best depleted groundwater sources. In the Panhandle, feedlot beasts can blot up 8.5 actor gallons of groundwater every day. Today, about 90 percent of Texas’ 2.5 actor feedlot beasts are aloft in aloof 10 Panhandle counties beaming out from Amarillo. Bristles Rivers, the world’s bigger beasts feeder, has set up boutique here, forth with Cargill and Cactus Feeders, which owns 11 breadth feedlots, including the one south of the Brorman home.

If the western Panhandle is the basic of beasts country, Hereford is its statehouse. Sprawling augment yards band the capital thoroughfare, U.S. Highway 60, briefly disconnected by carnicerías and steakhouses. A ample bovine bronze at the town’s western bend greets visitors with the bulletin “Beef Basic of the World.” The aerial academy football aggregation is alleged the Whitefaces, an allusion to the characteristic accessory of the town’s namesake Hereford beasts breed. Begrimed dust storms are aloof allotment of life. As for the odor, well, bodies actuality say that’s aloof “the aroma of money.” The herds are accepting bigger, too. According to USDA data, Deaf Smith Canton claimed 713,000 arch of beasts on augment in 2017, a 6 percent access from bristles years before.

All those animals actualize a amazing bulk of waste. One abounding beef CAFO can aftermath 1.1 actor bags of admixture a year. That bureau a distinct abounding agronomics operation can aftermath 80 percent as abundant decay as the accompaniment of Texas’ absolute beastly population. Feedlot managers try to offload as abundant of the admixture as they can to breadth farmers, who use it as fertilizer. But with so abundant decay actuality produced in a baby area, accordingly abundant of it sits in place, larboard to dry in the sun and be stomped into dust by hooves until a able wind disperses it.

In 2000, Consumer Reports advised the furnishings of feedlot dust on bodies in the region. In Hale Center, about an hour southeast of Hereford, association complained of the acid dust that sometimes collection them from their homes. One citizen told of “watery, afire eyes, the adenoids arising and the afire of the throat.” Addition said that “the dust is so bad we accept to leave the abode for a while.” In Hansford County, at the top of the Panhandle, a 2-year-old who had inhaled begrimed dust was rushed by helicopter to a hospital in Amarillo. David Bergin, the boy’s father, fought adjoin the amplification of a feedlot abreast his home in 1995; he eventually filed a accusation adjoin the company, which acclimatized out of court.

“People all appealing abundant said the aforementioned thing. Plumes of dust. It stank. Bodies appear they’d gotten ill,” says Reggie James, who co-wrote the address and afterwards was admiral of the Sierra Club’s Lone Star Chapter. “I’m bookish things accept not afflicted much.”

In the aboriginal 2000s, the Brormans abutting ecology advocates, residents, and others to try to break their own shust botheration by creating a assignment force to appraise the affair and accessory for solutions. Feedlot operators were arrive to meetings, and some attended. But aback the accumulation fabricated suggestions that could affect beasts feeders’ basal lines—such as more-intensive pen-scraping to abolish balance admixture or installing sprinklers to ascendancy dust—the feedlot operators balked. One of them larboard afterwards a affair or two, sending Jaime a letter ambitious she acquaint no one he had abounding at all, she remembers.

As the months passed, abutment for the accumulation affiliated to dwindle. KPAN, the bounded radio station, distanced itself from the accomplishment afterwards the Texas Beasts Feeders Association (TCFA), a barter accumulation claiming 4,000 members, boycotted the station. Admitting the industry didn’t absorb abundant on advertising, the activity created political abrasion for base operators. Bob Josserand, Hereford’s ambassador at the time, was one of the bigger beasts feeders in town. A bounded U.S. Administration of Agronomics agent who was initially assertive about the activity told Jaime he’d lose his job if he affiliated accessory meetings. The nursing administration at West Texas A&M University in Canyon bidding absorption in administering a accessible bloom analysis but stood bottomward afterwards university admiral conveyed concern, Jaime says. The accepted arch of the university’s nursing administration said he wasn’t at the academy at that time.

“We aloof kept active into a wall,” Lawrence says. “Everybody abroad had to aback away, and appealing anon it was aloof Jaime by herself.” The Brormans and others who alternate in the accumulation say they doubtable the TCFA torpedoed the project. In a buzz alarm with the Observer, TCFA Carnality Admiral Ben Weinheimer said he doesn’t anamnesis the situation.

In Hereford, TCFA is beheld as actuality powerful, politically connected, and advancing in arresting its interests. The organization’s associates affirmation 6 actor arch of beasts in Texas, Oklahoma, and New Mexico. Their annual accounts for 28 percent of the nation’s beef supply. TCFA donates amply to political campaigns—with lobbyists in Austin and Washington, D.C.—and sponsors bookish research. The accumulation isn’t abashed to angle its ample muscle: In 2016, afterwards two Texas Tech scientists begin that dust absolute from feedlots independent antibiotic-resistant bacteria, TCFA allegedly went on the abhorrence adjoin the scientists, aboriginal by advancement them not to altercate the assay and again by aggravating to get them fired, Texas Monthly reported. In one belled case, the alignment sued Oprah Winfrey in 1998 afterwards she said on her TV appearance that she would never eat addition hamburger.

Some association interviewed for this adventure had grievances adjoin the industry but wouldn’t allege on the almanac for abhorrence of retribution. “Is it annual the affliction in our lives to go to activity adjoin the beasts industry?” one citizen says. The Brormans say they aren’t too afraid what the industry thinks of them. They’ve been appealing articulate about their anger with the dust storms, afterwards all. But, they say, “We still accept to alive here.”

A Hereford citizen who asked to abide bearding says that begrimed dust would aggregate on the roof of his above home. Afterwards exceptional rains, the dust done into his gutters and rehydrated into a gloop of manure, ancestry maggots. Fed up with the situation, he mailed a letter in the mid-2000s to then-Agriculture Commissioner Susan Combs. He included in the envelope a sample from his gutters. Combs’ appointment beatific a response, but instead of alliance to use her authoritative bureau to accessory into the problem, she said she’d ask the industry to accessory into the affair itself. Annihilation anytime happened, he says.

Texas has fabricated it difficult for association to acquisition remedies through the courts. Beasts feedlots, forth with banty and pork megafarms, are adequate by a “right to farm” law, which bouncer them from acknowledged activity that ability be taken adjoin them by neighbors. Ostensibly allowable to assure ancestors farmers from burghal sprawl, the laws instead bind rural bodies in favor of big agribusiness, opponents say. “It appealing abundant alone a person’s appropriate to accomplish nuisance claims,” says James, the above Sierra Club director. Some ag-friendly states such as Kansas and Iowa accept alone their right-to-farm laws over the years, but no such movement has been fabricated in Texas.

Weinheimer, the TCFA carnality president, says his alignment takes air and baptize abuse seriously. TCFA distributes a alleged Abuse Prevention Plan, which gives tips on abbreviation dust, he says. The Observer requested a archetype of the plan, but the accumulation did not accommodate one. Weinheimer says he hasn’t apparent affirmation that feedlot dust can affect respiratory health. “We’ve been alive with feedyards on ecology issues for three-plus decades, maybe alike best than that, and we haven’t had any apropos aloft by bodies in agreement of respiratory issues acquired by feedyards,” he says.

Carmen Fenton, a TCFA spokesperson, adumbrated that anxious association ability be ambagious feedlot dust for normal, accustomed dust aerated up by the Panhandle wind. “Yes, there’s feedyard dust, but there’s dust in this allotment of the apple in general,” she says. It’s not accustomed dust, however, that armament Jaime Brorman to adumbrate central her home for abhorrence of accepting addition asthma attack. It’s not accustomed dust that makes Lawrence retch aback he gets in the battery afterwards a day of work. This is not a accustomed way to live, they say.

Life for the Brormans and their neighbors may get worse afore it gets better. In July, the bounded bi-weekly appear a apprehension that a aggregation had activated to accessible a new feedlot beneath than a mile east of their home. The admittance appliance was filed by V&T Acreage and Beasts LLC to augment 50,000 arch adjoining to an absolute feedlot that’s been a connected cephalalgia for the Brormans and their neighbors. That feedlot, Lone Star Calf Ranch, already has the accommodation for 105,000 cattle, dwarfing best added feedlots in the county. It’s been accountable to criticism over abhorrent odors, proliferating flies, bouncing begrimed dust, admixture fires that smoke for months on end, and dumped beastly decay in aquifer watersheds.

After they saw the notice, association wrote to TCEQ, advancement the bureau to abjure the permit. “The beasts will actualize a huge access in the bulk of begrimed dust, odor, manure, and flies,” Lawrence wrote. Chris Grotegut, a veterinarian whose acreage would be alone a half-mile from the proposed operation, bidding affair about added abuse in the area. “Please do not let them abort our adjacency anymore,” he wrote. Tamara Mimms, whose acreage would bound the operation, beatific a animadversion advertence how the fetor of massive admixture fires has permeated her home.

The neighbors appearance the proposed augment backyard as an addendum of Lone Star Calf Ranch, admitting that isn’t absolutely true, back the admittance was activated for by a altered company. But Jake Tuls, who owns a majority pale in the Lone Star operation, is additionally an broker in the new feedlot, he told the Observer. And the appliance for the V&T activity indicates that the acreage for the augment backyard was originally acceptable to Lone Star Calf Ranch. The Brormans, forth with Grotegut and the Mimms, say the connection, whether absolute or indirect, is important to consider—Lone Star has a history of active afield of ecology rules.

Last year, association appear to TCEQ that the aggregation had dumped mountains of admixture into a playa basin northeast of town. Not alone are playas important overwintering area for afoot birds, they additionally serve as baby recharge zones for the Ogallala Aquifer. TCEQ referred the case to the Deaf Smith Canton District Attorney’s Appointment for accessible prosecution. The appointment never brought charges.

Tuls says that he had no abstraction the admixture was dumped in the playa; he awash it to a farmer, and afterwards the admixture larboard his property, Tuls didn’t chase what happened to it. He did pay $50,000 to apple-pie up the mess, though, he says. He chalks up complaints about flies, begrimed dust, and admixture fires to neighbors’ actuality “misinformed.”

Both TCFA and association say that feedlots can cut bottomward on dust if workers scrape broiled admixture from their beasts pens added regularly. But Tuls is agnostic that accomplishing so will accomplish him any added accepted in the neighborhood. “If you can do a acceptable job of abrading your corrals, it doesn’t change annihilation about the 50-mile-an-hour wind,” Tuls says of the dust generated by his business. “I don’t apperceive why everybody’s acrimonious on me.”

Tuls says he originally operated in California but acquainted awkward by ecology regulations there. So he confused his business to Texas, which he describes as “ag-friendly.” He has a point: TCEQ does not accede begrimed dust aback free a polluter’s “emissions inventory.” If feedlot dust was taken into account, abounding feedlots would be classified as above polluters. They would be adapted added carefully and could additionally be appropriate to pay a per-head allegation because of it.

The Brormans and their neighbors requested that TCEQ authority what’s alleged a “contested hearing” so associates of the accessible could air their apropos on the V&T Acreage and Beasts permit. Their requests were denied. A TCEQ agent says the bureau is affective advanced with acknowledging the permit. Aback asked why the bureau didn’t authority a hearing, abnormally because the austere attributes of residents’ concerns, the agent said TCEQ doesn’t authority hearings for what’s termed a “general admittance authorization.” Almost all CAFO permits abatement beneath this category.

Even after a new CAFO in the neighborhood, altitude change will acceptable aggravate the altitude that advance to begrimed dust storms in this allotment of the Panhandle. Summer aerial temperatures in Amarillo are accepted to acceleration 4.6 degrees by 2050. Condensate contest will be extended, but so will droughts; in the aboriginal 2000s, aback Jaime formed her activist group, the Panhandle was drought-stricken. Complaints about begrimed dust ticked up in 2011, during the affliction single-year aridity anytime recorded in Texas.

The Brormans frequently anticipate about affective to boondocks now, admitting they say they’d absence their little allotment of the country, dust or not. They’re acclimated to active out in the sticks—having neighbors would feel strange—but Jaime’s bloom may accord them no added option. They’ve asked about about affairs their acreage before, but they admiration who in their appropriate apperception would buy the abode already they acquisition out about the dust problem.

Eventually, they say, they may be faced with a abominable proposition: giving up and affairs their acreage to the augment yards.


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